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Setting $EDITOR in ~/.bashrc may not work for security reasons (??).

On a gentoo system, sudo is build with the options: --with-editor=/usr/libexec/editor --with-env-editor.
Question: don't those two options conflict with each other? Document what /usr/libexec/editor does.

However, you may create an appropriate file within /etc/env.d/ to set $EDITOR, e.g.:

# cat /etc/env.d/88.visudo-editor

The update the environment. On a Gentoo system, do:
# env-update

User environment

Quoting man sudo:

-E, --preserve-env
Indicates to the security policy that the user wishes to preserve their existing environment variables.
The security policy may return an error if the user does not have permission to preserve the environment.

Thus having set $EDITOR in the user environment (e.g. in ~/.bashrc), the following should work:

$ sudo -E visudo